Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. When blood is visible in the urine, it is called gross hematuria. Microscopic hematuria is not visible but is detected on a urinalysis or by examining the urine under a microscope.

Causes of Hematuria

Bleeding can occur at any location along the urinary tract. This includes the kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra and the prostate in men. While blood in the urine is not always the sign of a serious disease or condition, it may be an indication of any of the following conditions:

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Prostate infection
  • Cancer of the bladder, kidney, prostate or urethra
  • Kidney disease
  • Trauma

Diagnosis of Hematuria

To determine the cause of hematuria, a doctor may order a series of diagnostic tests that may include:

  • Urine testing
  • Blood tests
  • CT scan
  • Ultrasound

A cystoscopy may also be performed to examine the lining of the bladder and the urethra.

Treatment of Hematuria

The treatment for hematuria varies depending on the cause as well as the patient's condition, symptoms and medical history. Often no specific cause of hematuria can be found. However, hematuria may be the result of another more serious condition, so it is important to consult a healthcare professional at the first sign of blood in the urine.

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